Case Study As A Research Methodology
Case study - Wikipedia
Case Study As A Research Methodology
Post-positivism is evident in how he defines case study as a form of empirical inquiry (p. One of the areas in which case studies have been gaining popularity is education and in particular educational evaluation. Each methodology is unique in approach depending on the ontological and epistemological stance, however all stem from the motivation to explore, seek understanding, and establish the meaning of experiences from the perspective of those involved (ibid.
These examine one or more sites either for the purpose of examining a situation of unique interest with little to no interest in generalization, or to call into question a highly generalized or universal assertion. Parallel to the use of case studies in anthropology, medicine and disciplines in the social sciences such as sociology, education and political science also embraced case study as a form of inquiry (anthony & jack, 2009 brown, 2008 creswell et al. Bounding the case is essential to focusing, framing, and managing data collection and analysis.
The case study handbook how to read, write, and discuss persuasively about cases qualitative case study methodology study design and implementation for novice researchers kyburz-graber, regula (2004). Embedded within yins (2014) case study design are the hallmarks of a postpositivist approach to research seeking rival explanations and falsifying hypotheses, the capability for replication with a multiple case study design, the pursuit of generalizations (if required), minimizing levels of subjectivity, and the use of multiple methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. This distinction accentuates the need for researchers to describe the particular underpinning methodology adopted and to clarify the alignment of chosen methods used with their philosophical assumptions and their chosen approach.
Similarly, the uptake of case study research in the political sciences, particularly during the 1980s and 1990s, led to a more integrated methodological approach with the aim of theoretical development and testing (george & bennett, 2005). In this article, we explore the evolution of case study research, discuss methodological variations, and summarize key elements with the aim of providing guidance on the available options for researchers wanting to use case study in their work. They typically utilize one or two instances of an event to show the existing situation.
They will have to gather information that may help them in solving such issues. Often these terms are used interchangeably without definitional clarity. Researchers who have contributed to the development of case study research come from diverse disciplines with different philosophical perspectives, resulting in a variety of definitions and approaches.
Richards research interests include translating evidence into practice, epidemiological, program and product evaluation, surveillance and using mixed methods research for solving real world problems. Thus, for example, if a researcher were interested in us resistance to communist expansion as a theoretical focus, then the korean war might be taken to be the beyond decisions about case selection and the subject and object of the study, decisions need to be made about purpose, approach and process in the case study. Like stake, merriam emphasizes the defining feature of case study research as being the object of the study (the bounded system i. The goal of this alignment is to engender coherence between the researchers philosophical position, their research question, design, and methods to be used in the study (farquhar, 2012 luck et al. Despite variation in the approaches of the different exponents of case study, there are characteristics common to all of them.
(PDF) Case study as a research method - ResearchGate
25 Jan 2016 ... Case study as a research method. Although case study methods remain a controversial approach to data collection, they are widely recognised in many social science studies especially when in-depth explanations of a social behaviour are soug
Case Study As A Research Methodology
(PDF) Case Study Research Methodology - ResearchGate
Record 1991 - 25767 ... Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy
publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study ...
Case Study As A Research Methodology
While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research (boblin et al. According to george and bennett (2005) scholars have formalized case study methods more completely and linked them to underlying arguments in the philosophy of science (p.
Methods were required that could be used to explore factors such as participants perspectives and the influence of socio-political contexts on curriculum successes and failures (simons, 2009), Prominent case study researchers do however emphasize that an overarching methodology shapes a case study design and that multiple sources of data and methods can be used (merriam, 2009 stake.
Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences of historical transformations in approaches to research and individual researchers preferences, perspectives, and interpretations of this design, Although case study methods remain a controversial approach to data collection.
How the methods are used will vary and depend on the research purpose and design, which is often a variation of a single or multiple case study research design, Antecedents of modern day case study research are most often cited as being conducted in the chicago school of sociology between the 1920-1950s (stewart.
Case study as a research method - psyking.net
Philosophically, case study research can be orientated from a realist or positivist perspective where the researcher holds the view that there is one single reality, which is independent of the individual and can be apprehended, studied and measured, through to a relativist or interpretivist perspective. Over the last forty years, case study research has undergone substantial methodological development. In the context of healthcare research and specifically nursing, luck et al. Defining the case (unit of analysis or object of the study) and bounding the case can be difficult as many points of interest and variables intersect and overlap in case study research. These methods mainly depended on the amount of cash the organisation is willing to spend in having this market research done and also the kind of data that is required by the group.
Case study research has grown in sophistication and is viewed as a valid form of inquiry to explore a broad scope of complex issues, particularly when human behavior and social interactions are central to understanding topics of interest (anthony & jack, 2009 flyvbjerg, 2011 george & bennett, 2005 luck, jackson & usher, 2006 merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014). An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information. Precision, process, and practicality are core attributes of yins approach to case study. Grounded theory merged qualitative field study methods from the chicago school of sociology with quantitative methods of data analysis (johansson, 2003, p. While some may argue that mixing qualitative and quantitative methods could threaten the veracity of the research (boblin et al.
Case study research can mean single and multiple case studies, can include quantitative evidence, relies on multiple sources of evidence, and benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions. We begin with an overview of the history and evolution of case study research, followed by a discussion of the methodological and philosophical variations found within case study designs. Some of the primary methods that would be used included interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations and in some cases use field trials. This ability to accommodate a range of philosophical positions is seen as an advantage whereby case study enables the opportunity to design research that can be specifically tailored to the inherent complexity of the research problem (anthony & jack, 2009 casey & houghton, 2010 flyvbjerg, 2011 farquhar, 2012 luck et al. Change and progress have stemmed from parallel influences from historical approaches to research and individual researchers preferences, perspectives on, and interpretations of case study research. Denzin & yvonna s. Selection of cases is based on the purpose of the research and related to the theoretical propositions about the topic of interest. Merriam (2009) acknowledges case study research can use both quantitative and qualitative methods however, when working on qualitative case studies, methods aimed at generating inductive reasoning and interpretation rather than testing hypothesis take priority. The diversity of approaches subsequently adds diversity to definition and description. Interaction between participants and the researcher is required to generate data, which is an indication of the researchers level of connection to and being immersed in the field.It also explores on the advantages and disadvantages of case study as a research method. Case study research, through reports of past studies, allows the exploration and understanding of complex issues. It can be considered a robust research method partic
Case Study Research: Foundations and Methodological Orientations19 Jan 2017 ... Case study research has grown in reputation as an effective methodology to
investigate and understand complex issues in real world settings.
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Assumptions Of Case Study Method
Some ways can be used to come up with the purpose of study that is most appropriate. Clarity in this alignment is fundamental to ensuring the veracity of the research and depends on the design developed. Antecedents of modern day case study research are most often cited as being conducted in the chicago school of sociology between the 1920-1950s (stewart, 2014). Like yin (2014), merriam (1998, 2009) asserts that when information is plentiful and concepts abstract, it is important to utilize processes that help interpret, sort, and manage information and that adapt findings to convey clarity and applicability to the results. Interaction with research subjects therefore needs to be minimized and subjectivity managed to avoid biasing the results (ibid Buy now Case Study As A Research Methodology
With the capacity to tailor approaches, case study designs can address a wide range of questions that ask why, what, and how of an issue and assist researchers to explore, explain, describe, evaluate, and theorize about complex issues in context. The ambiguity about case study being either or both a methodology and method, is compounded by the terminology used in discussions about case study. The role of the researcher in producing this knowledge is critical, and stake emphasizes the researchers interpretive role as essential in the process. For this purpose, qualitative researchers can employ a broad scope of methods and interpretative practices in any one study, although they typically include observations, interviews, and analysis of participants words (denzin & lincoln, 2011 merriam, 2009) Case Study As A Research Methodology Buy now
Qualitative paradigms are broad and can encompass exploratory, explanatory, interpretive, or descriptive aims. Theoretical frameworks or research questions are used and drawn from the literature or discipline (merriam, 1998). Prominent case study researchers do however emphasize that an overarching methodology shapes a case study design and that multiple sources of data and methods can be used (merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014), thus providing the distinction between the two. Using stakes qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice. In its negative form, the generalization would run if it is not valid for this case, then it is not valid for any (or valid for only few) cases Buy Case Study As A Research Methodology at a discount
Sociologists and anthropologists investigated peoples lives, experiences, and how they understood the social and cultural context of their world, with the aim of gaining insight into how individuals interpreted and attributed meaning to their experiences and constructed their worlds (johansson, 2003 simons, 2009). Mn(ed) is a phd candidate in the college of healthcare sciences, division of tropical health and medicine, james cook university, australia. Given the variation in definitions and descriptions, referring to case study research as a methodology andor a single method can be perplexing, misleading, and at times counterproductive (anthony & jack, 2009 boblin, ireland, kirkpatrick & robertson, 2013 flyvbjerg, 2011) Buy Online Case Study As A Research Methodology
As the figure highlights, early case studies were conducted in the social sciences. As a result, surveys, experiments, and statistical methods anchored in quantitative approaches were favored and considered more rigorous than qualitative designs (johansson, 2003). According to yin what makes case study research distinct from experimental studies is the case study is investigated in context, examined in its real world setting (p. One approach encourages researchers to compare horizontally, vertically, and temporally. For instance, clinical science has produced both well-known case studies of individuals and also case studies of clinical practices.
Falsification offers one of the most rigorous tests to which a scientific proposition can be subjected if just one observation does not fit with the proposition it is considered not valid generally and must therefore be either revised or rejected Buy Case Study As A Research Methodology Online at a discount
Teaching case studies need not adhere strictly to the use of evidence, as they can be manipulated to satisfy educational needs. One of the areas in which case studies have been gaining popularity is education and in particular educational evaluation. Such investigations were conducted in the natural setting of those experiences with results presented descriptively or as a narrative (merriam, 2009). The versatility of case study research to accommodate the researchers philosophical position presents a unique platform for a range of studies that can generate greater insights into areas of inquiry. Popper himself used the now famous example all swans are white, and proposed that just one observation of a single would falsify this proposition and in this way have general significance and stimulate further investigations and theory-building Case Study As A Research Methodology For Sale
Post-positivism is evident in how he defines case study as a form of empirical inquiry (p. An average, or typical case, is often not the richest in information. The subject is the practical, historical unity through which the theoretical focus of the study is being viewed. Case study research is consistently described as a versatile form of qualitative inquiry most suitable for a comprehensive, holistic, and in-depth investigation of a complex issue (phenomena, event, situation, organization, program individual or group) in context, where the boundary between the context and issue is unclear and contains many variables (creswell, 2014 flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 simons, 2009 stake, 2006 yin, 2014) For Sale Case Study As A Research Methodology
While differences exist in some areas, commonalities are evident that can guide the application of a case study research design. Using stakes qualitative case study approach to explore implementation of evidence-based practice. Central to these variations is the underpinning ontological and epistemological orientations of those involved in the evolution of case study research. Object of the case study identified as the entity of interest or unit of analysis program, individual, group, social situation, organization, event, phenomena, or process contextual variables include political, economic, social, cultural, historical, andor organizational factors subjectivity a consistent threadvaries in depth and engagement depending on the philosophical orientation of the research, purpose, and methods involves decisions about people, settings, events, phenomena, social processes methods specified criteria, methodical and purposive replication logic theoretical or literal replication (yin, 2014) methods of data collection interviews, observations, focus groups, artifact and document review, questionnaires andor surveys methods of analysis vary and depend on data collection methods and cases need to be systematic and rigorous a final, critical point when conducting case study research is the importance of careful preparation and planning, coupled with the development of a systematic implementation structure (flyvbjerg, 2011 merriam, 2009 stake, 2006 stewart, 2014 yin, 2014) Sale Case Study As A Research Methodology
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