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Writing A Theory Paper

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Writing A Theory Paper

By these means, it is clear that there is little reason to support ecd based upon the evidence presented in hancocks and hapgoods works. We may remain unconvinced by his theories, but at the same time, we have not actually found alternative answers to his questions. Hapgood, atlantean research was limited to mythological and scarce anthropological evidence.

Similarly, by shifting the northern ice sheets out of the arctic zone, the end of the ice age was facilitated. Antarctica ice cap has been around for the last 2 million years or more. The theory itself is not well thought-out it fails to answer numerous geologic questions.

However, since evidence shows yellowstone to be a very old hot spot, this weakens the possibility of such a shift due to ecd occurring. In retrospect, it seems only natural that it grew out of continental drift and sea-floor spreading. Hapgood provided a geologic theory, earth crust displacement, which claims that a catastrophic shift of the earths lithosphere around 10,000 bc.

Even more importantly, it seems that most of the frozen carcasses pre-date the supposed catastrophe as proposed by hancock by many thousands of years (heinrich, 1996, mom and atlantis. However, until the work of the late history professor charles h. Additionally, most of the carcasses appear to have gone through extensive decomposition, indicating not that they were suddenly trapped and frozen, but that the remains (mostly bones) were preserved sometime well after death.

After completing an analysis of hapgoods theory, ecd doesnt seem to present a compelling argument. A final nail in the casket for ecd might very well be the existence of hot spots, which are areas of volcanic eruptions and high heat above a rising mantle plume (plummer, 1996, p. Since the publication of hancocks (1995) book, numerous well-documented criticisms have appeared on the internet, many of them originating in news- and talkgroups.

This page contains links to various manuscript paper layouts which will open in a new window, allowing you to easily print them for your use. Hapgood was not a geologist he was a professor of the history of science at keene college in new hampshire (hancock, 1995, p. The motivation for ecd seems to be the belief that around 12, 000 years ago antarctica was at a warmer latitude, and some method is needed to move it south. As a result, glaciers are not static sheets of ice, but rather moving bodies of ice, that expand outward (continental) and downhill (alpine). Just as hancocks evidence deals with three main topics, so do the criticisms.


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Writing A Theory Paper

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Writing A Theory Paper Earths shifting crust a key to some basic problems of earth science. For plato and aristotle, this was also an aesthetic point in a proper world, such a continent would exist to provide better balance since the greeks were aware of lands near the arctic, there should also be land near the antarctic (wilford, 1981, p. Table of Contents. Antarctica as represented by the bedrock surface as adjusted for isostatic rebound (heinrich, 1996, mom and oronteus. If the lithosphere were to rotate around an axis over the asthenosphere, one would expect greater torque and friction between the lithosphere and asthenosphere near the poles of rotation than further away from the poles, According to heinrich, the claim that huge numbers of animals were frozen in permafrost is erroneous first, their claim that hundreds of thousands of frozen carcasses have been found is simply incorrect. Hapgood provided a geologic theory, earth crust displacement, which claims that a catastrophic shift of the earths lithosphere around 10,000 bc. For a sphere there is only one type of symmetry rotation about a fixed axis. Or shall we think again about the implications of hapgoods theory. One of the pieces of evidence for ecd is that different parts of northern continents (now at the same latitude) experienced different levels of glaciation (hancock, 1995, p.
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    Its evidence can often be ignored, because it is simply wrong. After completing an analysis of hapgoods theory, ecd doesnt seem to present a compelling argument. At the same time, however, there is definitely the need for science to stay open to new ideas. Perhaps most geologists agree that antarctica has been ice-covered for millions of year, but what if there is irrefutable evidence showing the presence of rivers in antarctica a mere 6,000 years ago? Can they be explained by some sort of interglacial period, or is it necessary to rethink out ideas about antarctica? Although earth crust displacement seems non-viable, it still raises interesting question for geology and other fields. In his book, hancock pulls together hapgoods theory and more recent evidence to set forth a manner by which antarctica, now covered by snow and ice, could have in the relatively recent geologic past had a temperate climate and have been home to the lost civilization of atlantis, now buried below thousands of feet of ice.

    Although antarctica was not properly discovered until 1820 by nathaniel b. Naturally, if antarctica shifted south, and parts of the northern hemisphere moved out of the arctic zone, this implies other areas must have shifted into the arctic area and become colder. According to hapgood, ecd caused antarctica to move south and caused the end of the ice age in the northern hemisphere. The geologic revolution that took place in the 1960snamely the development of plate tectonicsseemed to remove hapgoods theory, which had never been taken seriously in academic circles, from the picture. In retrospect, it seems only natural that it grew out of continental drift and sea-floor spreading.

    The constantly increasing centrifugal momentum produced in this way will, when it has reached a certain point, produce a movement of the earths crust over the rest of the earths body. The mysterious origins of man the oroteus finaeus map of 1532. The theory itself is not well thought-out it fails to answer numerous geologic questions. One such mystery is the myth of atlantis and the question of its existence. Useful for writing large orchestral scores or where you would like to fit a lot of music on to one page. However, neither hancock nor hapgood ever cover this point. The asthenosphere does act as a lubricating layer for the lithosphere, allowing it to move, but due to its highly viscous nature, it cannot permit the rapid, large-scale, motion claimed by ecd. This led hapgood to hypothesize that the original source maps had been drawn by an advanced civilization thousands of years earlier, when, at the end of the last ice age, antarctica was not completely glaciated. It is also important to critically analyze what is being said and by whom. Hancock commits another logical fallacy by claiming ecd is correct because certain other possibilities seem absurd are we therefore to assume the intervention of alien cartographers.

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    Since the existence of a hot spot rests upon presence of a mantle plume, ecd would cause a dramatic shift in the locations of such hot spots. Although various explorers visited the islands to the south of south america in the 17th and 18th centuries, antarctica was not officially discovered until 1820. Our metaphor of the jig-saw puzzle for ecd also falls apart not because of the ways in which plates interact, but because a jig-saw puzzle can only be moved easily in ways mentioned earlier if it is located on a table. Another piece of evidence claims that portions of the antarctic ice sheet are much younger than previously thought, and that in reality portions of antarctica remained glacier-free until the end of the last ice age or even later Buy now Writing A Theory Paper

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    He proposes earth crust displacement not as a replacement for plate tectonics, but as a supplement. ). The claim is that the great build-up of ice in the northern hemisphere was not situated symmetrically, and that as the earth rotated on its axis, this imbalance caused the lithosphere to slip catastrophically, as hancock states much as the skin of an orange, if it were loose, might shift over the inner part of the orange all in one piece. For a sphere there is only one type of symmetry rotation about a fixed axis. He made the startling observation that several of these maps seemed to greater and lesser degrees to depict a southern landmass shaped and sized similarly to antarctica.

    A final nail in the casket for ecd might very well be the existence of hot spots, which are areas of volcanic eruptions and high heat above a rising mantle plume (plummer, 1996, p Writing A Theory Paper Buy now

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    Although hapgoods theory of earth crust displacement attempts to answer unsolved mysteries in cartography and archaeology through geologic means, the evidence for the theory itself is lacking in validity, and instead of providing a geologically sound addition to plate tectonics, the theory posed is riddled by logical and factual gaps. There are other claims that the southern continent on these maps is actually australia, as sighted by early portuguese merchants, not antarctica (lunde, 1980, the oronteus. In his book, hancock pulls together hapgoods theory and more recent evidence to set forth a manner by which antarctica, now covered by snow and ice, could have in the relatively recent geologic past had a temperate climate and have been home to the lost civilization of atlantis, now buried below thousands of feet of ice Buy Writing A Theory Paper at a discount

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    In fact, hancock claims both can be true, and the ecd is a modification to an existing, yet incomplete theory. They are all free to use, just click to open then choose the print command from the file menu. That is, during the ice age, the ice sheets advanced and retreated more than once. In a mathematical sense, there are several forms of symmetry in the plane. The pages are a4 sized, but if you have and a3 you can choose expand to fit page when you print to get a3 sized manuscript paper.

    However, this does not represent the ice-free topography of antarctica, since it fails to take into account isostatic rebound. Indeed, his arguments are no more novel than those of the neptunists and catastrophists in the past Buy Online Writing A Theory Paper

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    Hancocks (1995) arguments for the northern hemisphere are filled with just as many holes. For example, the central and eastern parts of north america were covered by a large ice sheet, whereas in the topographically more varied west, mountain or valley glaciers predominated. After completing an analysis of hapgoods theory, ecd doesnt seem to present a compelling argument. The theory of ecd shows no inherent contradictions with plate tectonics, the now-accepted explanation of how the earths crust moves and changes. These sheets are laid out in pairs of staves, suitable for writing music for piano, keyboard, harp, etc.

    Add to them universal legends of a great flood and ancient architectural wonders such as the egyptian pyramids, which seem to defy even modern construction techniques, and one begins to realize that although most of these mysteries are probably just fiction, there must be some kernel of truth to capture the public imagination Buy Writing A Theory Paper Online at a discount

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    Not only is hapgoods ecd theory lacking supporting geologic evidence, it actually contradicts tested geologic concepts. Use them for practising writing clefs and notes, or for writing your own music. A review of the evidence relating to antarctica leads to just as many problems. Since ancient times, it was believed that there must be a southern continent to balance out the overabundance of landmass in the northern hemisphere. A final nail in the casket for ecd might very well be the existence of hot spots, which are areas of volcanic eruptions and high heat above a rising mantle plume (plummer, 1996, p.

    Hapgood, atlantean research was limited to mythological and scarce anthropological evidence Writing A Theory Paper For Sale

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    According to continental drift, the continents can move freely and change their positions relative to one another, and major early evidence for this was the observation that continents such as south america and africa seem to fit together like pieces of a jig-saw puzzle. He proposes earth crust displacement not as a replacement for plate tectonics, but as a supplement. Science is empirical its theories are dependent upon gathered evidence not the other way around. Neither continental drift nor plate tectonics, however, disallows the plates from moving in a unified manner at times. Since the publication of hancocks (1995) book, numerous well-documented criticisms have appeared on the internet, many of them originating in news- and talkgroups For Sale Writing A Theory Paper

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    In fact, hapgood and hancock argue, at this time, antarctica lay not at its current position at the south pole, but instead about 30 degrees further north, in a temperate climate. When glaciers reach the sea, they dont simply continue to build up pieces break off and form icebergs. Hapgood was a historian, not a geologist, and hancock is a writer with no credentials in cartography, archaeology, or geology. Hancocks (1995) arguments for the northern hemisphere are filled with just as many holes. Einsteins claim in hapgood (1958) that at a certain critical point, a slip of the earths crust is bound to occur due to an unevenly distributed icemass also fails to take isostacy into consideration Sale Writing A Theory Paper

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